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.^='C/7^ ELECTRICS WATER HEATERS Correct Application of Water Heaters IN THE installation of any type of heater it should be borne in mind that a material drop in temperature of 6 to 15 degress may occur in a relatively short length of pipe. In order to reduce this loss to a minimum, hot water pipes should be lagged in the same manner that the tank is to retain all the heat which makes it unnecessary to waste a large quantity of water before sufficient hot water reaches the user. The average temperature at the top of the tank is 160 degrees; to the quantity of hot water at tank temperature to be used there will be added an equal quantity, if not more, of cold water. Consequent¬ ly when determining the quantity of water to be used for a given purpose it must be borne in mind that the quantity of water actually heated may be considerably less than the total quantity required, since it is heated initially to a higher temperature than can be used. For determining the amount of electricity required for heating a given quantity of water the following must be known: Capacity of Tan\. Time required for raising temperature from minimum to maximum; that is, temperature of water entering the tank and temperature of water leaving the tank. If tan\ is insulated, what is the thic\ness and kind of in¬ sulation, as there is some loss in the tank itself and in the insulation surrounding it. With these factors known, it can be figured from the following formula: The amount of heat necessary to raise the tempera^ ture of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit is one B.T.U. (British Thermal Unit). One \ilo^ watt hour of electricity generates 3,412 B.T.U.'s. Therefore, assuming that the water enters the tank at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and that it is to be delivered at 160 degrees Fahrenheit inasmuch as a raise of 100 degrees in temperature or 100 B.T.U.'s are necessary to raise the temperature of one pound of water 100 degrees Fahrenheit; since a gallon of water weighs approximately 8 1/3 pounds, it will necessitate 833 B.T.U.'s to raise one gallon of water 100 degrees Fahrenheit. From the above we see that one kilowatt of electricity flowing for one hour generates 3412 B.T.U.'s and one watt (which is 1/1000 of a kilowatt), will generate 3.412 B.T.U.'s. If we divide 833 B.T.U.'s necessary to raise the temperature of one gallon of water 100 degrees Fahrenheit by 3.412 B.T.U.'s which are generated by one watt of electricity in one hour, we note the answer is 244, which is the watts necessary to raise the temperature of one gallon of water 100 degrees Fahrenheit or approxi¬ mately ]/4 kilowatt hour. If only a fifty degree rise in temperature is required, then the amount of current necessary is onehalf, or oneeighth kilowatt hour. This is not taking into consideration any losses. In our model No. 1253 Storage Type Heater the losses are 3 K.W. hours per day of twentyfour hours. In other words if fiftythree gallons of water had been heated to 160 degrees and no water is drawn off it will take 3 kilowatt hours to maintain that temperature. This, on a 3cent rate would mean 9 cents per day radiation losses plus 14 cent per gallon for each gallon of water used. On model No. 1225 Heater the losses are 2 K. W. per day. On our No. 1210 Heater the losses are 2.7 K.W. per day. The reason for the low loss per gallon on the model No. 1253 is due to the fact that there are 4/2 inches of insulation. The higher loss in the model No. 1210 is due to the fact that there are more square feet of surface exposed per gallon capacity than on either the No. 1225 or No. 1253. Side Arm Circulating Type Note goose neck trap on hot water line. Installation of circulating type. All hot water pipes and tank should be insulated with an ap¬ proved insulating: ma¬ terial. The circulating type water heaters are made of brass and copper, attractively finished in gray lacquer and thorough¬ ly insulated with wool felt. The unit is nickel chromium ribbon, mica insulated. For each inch of lineal unit, 1% square inches of surface are exposed so that the unit operates at an extremely low density. The wiring is in rigid conduit. Heaters work equally well on direct or alternating current and are not affected by frequency or voltage changes. [28]
Object Description
Page Title  L & H Electric Ranges 
Author  A.J. Lindemann & Hoverson & Co. 
Place of Publication  Milwaukee, Wis. 
Source Publisher  A.J. Lindemann & Hoverson & Co. 
Source Creation Date  1929 
Language  English 
Digital Format  XML 
Electronic Publisher  Wisconsin Historical Society 
Rights  We believe that online reproduction of this material is permitted because its copyright protection has lapsed or because sharing it here for nonprofit educational purposes complies with the Fair Use provisions of the U.S. Copyright Law. Teachers and students are generally free to reproduce pages for nonprofit classroom use. For advice about other uses, or if you believe that you possess copyright to some of this material, please contact us at asklibrary@wisconsinhistory.org. 
Electronic Publication Date  2005 
Digital Identifier  TP191000 
Description  In this catalog, Milwaukee's Lindemann & Hoverson Co. advertises its line of electric stoves, ranges, water heaters, and space heaters. Dozens of photographs, some in color, show how the manufacturer attempted to promote utilitarian value through aesthetic appeal. Pages 25 and 26 were omitted in the original document. 
Owner  Wisconsin Historical Society Library 
Format  Text 
Recommended Citation  A.J. Lindemann & Hoverson & Co. L & H Electrics ranges : ranges, air heaters, kitchen heaters, water heaters and appliances. ( Milwaukee, Wis. : A.J. Lindemann & Hoverson Co., [1929]). Online facsimile at http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1006 
Document Number  TP191 
Size  32 p. : ill. ; 27 cm. 
URL  http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1006 
Owner Collection  Pamphlets in Rare Books 
Owner Object ID  95 2573 
Genre  pamphlet 
County  Milwaukee County 
City  Milwaukee 
State/Province  Wisconsin 
SubTopic  The Introduction of Electrical Power 
Event Date  1929 
Event Years  1929 
Domestic Life  Cookery 
Science and Technology  Electric power 
Type  Text 
Description
Page Title  28 
Author  A.J. Lindemann & Hoverson & Co. 
Place of Publication  Milwaukee, Wis. 
Source Publisher  A.J. Lindemann & Hoverson & Co. 
Source Creation Date  1929 
Language  English 
Digital Format  JPG 
Electronic Publisher  Wisconsin Historical Society 
Rights  We believe that online reproduction of this material is permitted because its copyright protection has lapsed or because sharing it here for nonprofit educational purposes complies with the Fair Use provisions of the U.S. Copyright Law. Teachers and students are generally free to reproduce pages for nonprofit classroom use. For advice about other uses, or if you believe that you possess copyright to some of this material, please contact us at asklibrary@wisconsinhistory.org. 
Electronic Publication Date  2005 
Digital Identifier  TP191027 
Owner  Wisconsin Historical Society Library 
Format  Text 
Size  27 cm. 
Owner Collection  Pamphlets in Rare Books 
Owner Object ID  96 2579 
Full Text  .^='C/7^ ELECTRICS WATER HEATERS Correct Application of Water Heaters IN THE installation of any type of heater it should be borne in mind that a material drop in temperature of 6 to 15 degress may occur in a relatively short length of pipe. In order to reduce this loss to a minimum, hot water pipes should be lagged in the same manner that the tank is to retain all the heat which makes it unnecessary to waste a large quantity of water before sufficient hot water reaches the user. The average temperature at the top of the tank is 160 degrees; to the quantity of hot water at tank temperature to be used there will be added an equal quantity, if not more, of cold water. Consequent¬ ly when determining the quantity of water to be used for a given purpose it must be borne in mind that the quantity of water actually heated may be considerably less than the total quantity required, since it is heated initially to a higher temperature than can be used. For determining the amount of electricity required for heating a given quantity of water the following must be known: Capacity of Tan\. Time required for raising temperature from minimum to maximum; that is, temperature of water entering the tank and temperature of water leaving the tank. If tan\ is insulated, what is the thic\ness and kind of in¬ sulation, as there is some loss in the tank itself and in the insulation surrounding it. With these factors known, it can be figured from the following formula: The amount of heat necessary to raise the tempera^ ture of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit is one B.T.U. (British Thermal Unit). One \ilo^ watt hour of electricity generates 3,412 B.T.U.'s. Therefore, assuming that the water enters the tank at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and that it is to be delivered at 160 degrees Fahrenheit inasmuch as a raise of 100 degrees in temperature or 100 B.T.U.'s are necessary to raise the temperature of one pound of water 100 degrees Fahrenheit; since a gallon of water weighs approximately 8 1/3 pounds, it will necessitate 833 B.T.U.'s to raise one gallon of water 100 degrees Fahrenheit. From the above we see that one kilowatt of electricity flowing for one hour generates 3412 B.T.U.'s and one watt (which is 1/1000 of a kilowatt), will generate 3.412 B.T.U.'s. If we divide 833 B.T.U.'s necessary to raise the temperature of one gallon of water 100 degrees Fahrenheit by 3.412 B.T.U.'s which are generated by one watt of electricity in one hour, we note the answer is 244, which is the watts necessary to raise the temperature of one gallon of water 100 degrees Fahrenheit or approxi¬ mately ]/4 kilowatt hour. If only a fifty degree rise in temperature is required, then the amount of current necessary is onehalf, or oneeighth kilowatt hour. This is not taking into consideration any losses. In our model No. 1253 Storage Type Heater the losses are 3 K.W. hours per day of twentyfour hours. In other words if fiftythree gallons of water had been heated to 160 degrees and no water is drawn off it will take 3 kilowatt hours to maintain that temperature. This, on a 3cent rate would mean 9 cents per day radiation losses plus 14 cent per gallon for each gallon of water used. On model No. 1225 Heater the losses are 2 K. W. per day. On our No. 1210 Heater the losses are 2.7 K.W. per day. The reason for the low loss per gallon on the model No. 1253 is due to the fact that there are 4/2 inches of insulation. The higher loss in the model No. 1210 is due to the fact that there are more square feet of surface exposed per gallon capacity than on either the No. 1225 or No. 1253. Side Arm Circulating Type Note goose neck trap on hot water line. Installation of circulating type. All hot water pipes and tank should be insulated with an ap¬ proved insulating: ma¬ terial. The circulating type water heaters are made of brass and copper, attractively finished in gray lacquer and thorough¬ ly insulated with wool felt. The unit is nickel chromium ribbon, mica insulated. For each inch of lineal unit, 1% square inches of surface are exposed so that the unit operates at an extremely low density. The wiring is in rigid conduit. Heaters work equally well on direct or alternating current and are not affected by frequency or voltage changes. [28] 
Event Date  1929 
Event Years  1929 
Type  Text 